History Of AI In 33 Breakthroughs: The First Expert System & More Latest News


In the early Sixties, laptop scientist Ed Feigenbaum grew to become fascinated by “creating models of the thinking processes of scientists, especially the processes of empirical induction by which hypotheses and theories were inferred from data.” In April 1964, he met geneticist (and Noble-prize winner) Joshua Lederberg who instructed him how skilled chemists use their data about how compounds have a tendency to interrupt up in a mass spectrometer to make guesses a few compound’s construction.

Recalling in 1987 the event of DENDRAL, the primary skilled system, Lederberg remarked: “…we were trying to invent AI, and in the process discovered an expert system. This shift of paradigm, ‘that Knowledge IS Power’ was explicated in our 1971 paper [On Generality and Problem Solving: A Case Study Using the DENDRAL Program], and has been the banner of the knowledge-based-system movement within AI research from that moment.”

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Expert methods represented a brand new stage within the evolution of AI, shifting from its preliminary emphasis on common problem-solvers centered on expressing in code human reasoning, i.e., drawing inferences and arriving at logical conclusions. The new focus was on data, particularly the data of specialised (slender) area consultants and particularly, their heuristic data.

Feigenbaum defined heuristic data (in his 1983 speak “Knowledge Engineering: The Applied Side of Artificial Intelligence”) as “knowledge that constitutes the rules of expertise, the rules of good practice, the judgmental rules of the field, the rules of plausible reasoning… In contrast to the facts of the field, its rules of expertise, its rules of good guessing, are rarely written down.”

Pamela McCorduck in This Could Be Important: My Life and Times with the Artificial Intelligentsia, 2019:

“In 1965, Feigenbaum and Lederberg gathered a superb team, including philosopher Bruce Buchanan and later Carl Djerassi (one of the ‘fathers’ of the contraceptive pill) plus some brilliant graduate students who would go on to make their own marks in AI. The team began to investigate how scientists interpreted the output of mass spectrometers. To identify a chemical compound, how did an organic chemist decide which, out of several possible paths to choose, would be likelier than others? The key, they realized, is knowledge—what the organic chemist already knows about chemistry. Their research would produce the Dendral program (for dendritic algorithm, tree-like, exhibiting spreading roots and branches) with fundamental assumptions and techniques that would completely change the direction of AI research.”

The expertise with DENDRAL knowledgeable the event of the Stanford group’s subsequent skilled system, MYCIN (the widespread suffix related to many antimicrobial brokers), designed to help physicians in diagnosing blood infections. Feigenbaum used MYCIN as an example the assorted facets of data engineering, stating that skilled methods should clarify to the consumer how they arrived at their suggestions, “otherwise, the systems will not be credible to their professional users.”

As occurred repeatedly with new breakthroughs all through the historical past of AI, skilled methods generated plenty of hype, pleasure, and false predictions. Experts methods had been “the new new thing” within the Nineteen Eighties and it was estimated that two thirds of the Fortune 500 firms utilized the expertise in day by day enterprise actions, solely to finish within the “AI Winter” of the late Nineteen Eighties.

Already in 1983, Feigenbaum recognized the “key bottleneck” that led to their eventual demise, that of scaling the data acquisition course of: “The knowledge is currently acquired in a very painstaking way that reminds one of cottage industries, in which individual computer scientists work with individual experts in disciplines painstakingly to explicate heuristics. In the decades to come, we must have more automatic means for replacing what is currently a very tedious, time-consuming, and expensive procedure. The problem of knowledge acquisition is the key bottleneck problem in artificial intelligence.”

The automation of data acquisition ultimately occurred, however not through the strategies envisioned on the time. In 1988, members of the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center printed “A statistical approach to language translation,” heralding the shift from rule-based to probabilistic strategies of machine translation, and reflecting one other shift within the evolution of AI to “machine learning” based mostly on statistical evaluation of identified examples, not comprehension and “understanding” of the duty at hand.

And whereas data for Feigenbaum was the heuristic data of consultants in very particular domains, data grew to become, particularly after the arrival of the Web, each digitized entity accessible over the web (and past) that could possibly be mined and analyzed by machine studying, and over the past decade, by its extra superior model, “deep learning.”

In his 1987 private historical past of the event of DENDRAL, Lederberg wrote about Marvin Minsky’s criticism of generate-and-test paradigms, that for “any problem worthy of the name, the search through all possibilities will be too inefficient for practical use.” Lederberg: “He had chess playing in mind with 10^120 possible move paths. It is true that equally intractable problems, like protein folding, are known in chemistry and other natural sciences. These are also difficult for human intelligence.”

In November 2020, DeepMind’s AlphaFold mannequin, a deep studying system designed to establish the three-dimensional buildings of proteins, achieved remarkably correct outcomes. In July 2022, DeepMind introduced that AlphaFold may establish the construction of some 200 million proteins from 1 million species, overlaying nearly each protein identified to human beings.

History Of AI In 33 Breakthroughs: The First Expert System

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History Of AI In 33 Breakthroughs: The First Expert System

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History Of AI In 33 Breakthroughs: The First Expert System

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